Unit 24: PRESENT PERFECT -- FORMATION
In the simple formation, the participle is the lexical verb (Unit 3); in the continuous formation, the participle is been, with the -ing form of the lexical verb after it.
Simple (have + past participle)
He has worked very hard this term.
The meeting has not started yet.
I have rented a car for two weeks.
They haven't fixed the car yet.
Have you finished yet?
What has she decided to do?
Why have they left?
NOTICE: For spelling problems with the -ing form of the verb, look at Appendix 6.
Continuous (have been -ing form)
I have been learning English for four years.
He has not been feeling very well lately.
It's been raining non-stop for days.
Have you been working hard recently?
What's she been doing?
Why has it been raining so much?
Notes on past participles
Have can be an AUXILIARY and a LEXICAL verb (Unit 3).
Have the girls had lunch yet?
We have been having a good time.
Go has two past participles
He has gone to Rome. [not here now]
He has been to Rome. [went and returned]
NOTICE: Unit 25 tells you about the use of present perfect.